japanese lessons in exeter
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japanese lessons in exeterAdjectives         
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1. い・形容詞 I-adjective
2. な・形容詞 Na-adjective
1. い・形容詞 I-adjective
I-adjectives end with い(i).
e.g. かわい(kawaii) = pretty
Affirmative (e.g. It is pretty.) かわい
kawai

i
Negative (e.g. It is not pretty.)   くない
kunai
Past (e.g. It was pretty.)   かった
katta
Past Negative (e.g. It was not pretty.)   くなかった
kunakatta
Before nouns (e.g. pretty things)  
i
**********   くて
kute

*** Compare with adjectives in a polite way

Exception: "good"
い (ii)
くない(yokunai)
かった(yokatta) 
くなかった(yokunakatta)
夏子 Natsuko 冬子 Fuyuko

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
Natsuko's eyes are blue.
夏子の目は青い
Fuyuko's eyes are black.
冬子の目は黒い
Natsuko's hair is brown.
夏子の髪は茶色い
The color of Fuyuko's hair is dark.
冬子の髪の色は暗い
Natsuko's teeth are white.
夏子の歯は白い
Fuyuko's teeth are yellow.
冬子の歯は黄色い
Natsuko's hair is short.
夏子の髪は短い
Fuyuko's hair is long.
冬子の髪は長い
Natsuko's eyebrows are thin.
夏子の眉毛は細い
Fuyuko's eyebrows are thick.
冬子の眉毛は太い
Natsuko's mouth is big.
夏子の口は大きい
Fuyuko's mouth is small.
冬子の口は小さい
Natsuko's mouth is big.
*** informal way
夏子の口はデカい
Fuyuko's head is big.
*** informal way
冬子の頭はデカい
Natsuko's forehead is big.
夏子の額は広い
Fuyuko's forehead is small.
冬子の額は狭い
Natsuko's nose is high bridged.
夏子の鼻は高い
Fuyuko's nose is low bridged.
冬子の鼻は低い
Natsuko is cheerful.
夏子は明るい
Fuyuko is gloomy.
冬子は暗い

****** くて kute ******** ( く ku could be used in writing)

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji

i-adjective + adjective in a sentence
It is hot in summer and cold in winter.
夏は暑くて冬は寒い。

i-adjective of positive meaning + adjective of positive meaning
Chocolate is sweet and (so) delicious.
チョコレートは甘くて美味しい。
*** Chocolate is sweet. The sweetness makes chocolate delicious.
"Sweet" is a positive meaning and part of "delicious" in general, so you mention "sweet" and then "delicious".
This restaurant is cheap and delicious.
このレストランは安くて美味しい。
*** Generally speaking, people prefer to pay less money, so "cheap" in this sentence is a good meaning. You do not really expect cheap food to be delicious but this restaurant is cheap and, what's more, delicious.

i-adjective of negative meaning + adjective of negative meaning
This restaurant is expensive and tasteless.
このレストランは高くて不味い。
*** Generally speaking, people prefer to pay less money, so "expensive" in this sentence is a negative meaning. You usually expect expensive food to be delicious but this restaurant is expensive and, what's worse, tasteless.

i-adjective of negative meaning + negative clause
This necklace is expensive and so I can't buy it.
このネックレスは高くて買えない。
Sasuke is mean and is hated by everyone.
佐助は意地が悪くて皆に嫌われてる。

i-adjective of positive meaning + positive clause
This ring is cheap. Even I could buy it.
この指輪は安くて私でも買えそう。

i-adjective of positive meaning + positive clause
Rumi is warm-hearted and is liked by everyone.
ルミは優しくて皆に好かれてる。
2. な・形容詞 Na-adjective
Na-adjectives do not usually end with い(i)but there are some exceptions such as きれい(kirei) for beautiful.
e.g. 重要(juuyou) = important
Affirmative (e.g. It is important.) 重要
juuyou
--- (/だ)
--- (/da)
Negative (e.g. It is not important.)   じゃない
janai
Past (e.g. It was important.)   だった
datta
Past Negative (e.g. It was not important.)   じゃなかった
janakatta
Before nouns (e.g. important things)  
na
**********  
de
夏子 Natsuko 冬子 Fuyuko

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
Natsuko is beautiful.
夏子は綺麗
Fuyuko is not beautiful.
冬子は綺麗じゃない
Natsuko is not ugly.
夏子は不細工じゃない
Fuyuko is not ugly.
冬子はブスじゃない
Natsuko likes Fuyuko.
夏子は冬子が好き
Fuyuko dislikes Natsuko.
冬子は夏子が嫌い
Natsuko is tight with money.
夏子はケチ
Fuyuko is mean.
冬子は意地悪

****** で de ********

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji

na-adjective + adjective in a sentence
The outside is clean and the inside is dirty.
外は綺麗で中は汚い。

na-adjective of positive meaning + adjective of positive meaning
The Japanese in this book is easy and it(/the book) is fun.
この本は日本語が簡単で面白い。

na-adjective of negative meaning + adjective of negative meaning
Akiko is tight with money and ugly.
秋子はケチで不細工。

na-adjective of negative meaning + negative clause
Yuri is mean and is hated by everyone.
由利は意地悪で皆から嫌われてる。

i-adjective of positive meaning + positive clause
Cherry blossoms are beautiful and everyone loves them.
桜は綺麗で皆大好き。
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