japanese lessons in exeter
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japanese lessons in exeterAdjectives         
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1. い・形容詞 I-adjective
2. な・形容詞 Na-adjective
1. い・形容詞 I-adjective
I-adjectives end with い(i).
e.g. かわい(kawaii) = pretty
Affirmative (e.g. It is pretty.) かわい
kawai
です
idesu
Negative (e.g. It is not pretty.)   くないです
kunaidesu
ありません
kuarimasen
Past (e.g. It was pretty.)   かったです
kattadesu
Past Negative (e.g. It was not pretty.)   くなかったです
kunakattadesu
ありませんでした
kuarimasendeshita
Before nouns (e.g. pretty things)  
i
**********   くて
kute

*** Compare with adjectives in a casual way
*** ないです(nai desu) = ありません(arimasen)
*** なかったです(nai desu) = ありませんでした(arimasendeshita)

Exception: "good"
です (iidesu)
くないですyokunaidesu
かったですyokattadesu) 
くなかったですyokunakattadesu
夏子 Natsuko 冬子 Fuyuko

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
Natsuko's eyes are blue.
夏子の目は青いです
Fuyuko's eyes are black.
冬子の目は黒いです
Natsuko's hair is brown.
夏子の髪は茶色いです
The color of Fuyuko's hair is dark.
冬子の髪の色は暗いです
Natsuko's teeth are white.
夏子の歯は白いです
Fuyuko's teeth are yellow.
冬子の歯は黄色いです
Natsuko's hair is short.
夏子の髪は短いです
Fuyuko's hair is long.
冬子の髪は長いです
Natsuko's eyebrows are thin.
夏子の眉毛は細いです
Fuyuko's eyebrows are thick.
冬子の眉毛は太いです
Natsuko's mouth is big.
夏子の口は大きいです
Fuyuko's mouth is small.
冬子の口は小さいです
Natsuko's forehead is big.
夏子の額は広いです
Fuyuko's forehead is small.
冬子の額は狭いです
Natsuko's nose is high bridged.
夏子の鼻は高いです
Fuyuko's nose is low bridged.
冬子の鼻は低いです
Natsuko is cheerful.
夏子は明るいです
Fuyuko is gloomy.
冬子は暗いです

****** くて kute ******** ( く ku could be used in writing)

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji

i-adjective + adjective in a sentence
It is hot in summer and cold in winter.
夏は暑くて冬は寒いです。

i-adjective of positive meaning + adjective of positive meaning
Chocolate is sweet and (so) delicious.
チョコレートは甘くて美味しいです。
*** Chocolate is sweet. The sweetness makes chocolate delicious.
"Sweet" is a positive meaning and part of "delicious" in general, so you mention "sweet" and then "delicious".
This restaurant is cheap and delicious.
このレストランは安くて美味しいです。
*** Generally speaking, people prefer to pay less money, so "cheap" in this sentence is a good meaning. You do not really expect cheap food to be delicious but this restaurant is cheap and, what's more, delicious.

i-adjective of negative meaning + adjective of negative meaning
This restaurant is expensive and tasteless.
このレストランは高くて不味いです。
*** Generally speaking, people prefer to pay less money, so "expensive" in this sentence is a negative meaning. You usually expect expensive food to be delicious but this restaurant is expensive and, what's worse, tasteless.

i-adjective of negative meaning + negative clause
This necklace is expensive and so I can't buy it.
このネックレスは高くて買えないです/買えません。
Sasuke is mean and is hated by everyone.
佐助は意地が悪くて皆に嫌われています。

i-adjective of positive meaning + positive clause
This ring is cheap. Even I could buy it.
この指輪は安くて私でも買えそうです。

i-adjective of positive meaning + positive clause
Rumi is warm-hearted and is liked by everyone.
ルミは優しくて皆に好かれています。
2. な・形容詞 Na-adjective
Na-adjectives do not usually end with い(i)but there are some exceptions such as きれい(kirei) for beautiful.
e.g. 重要(juuyou) = important
Affirmative (e.g. It is important.) 重要
juuyou
です
desu)
Negative (e.g. It is not important.)   じゃないです
janai desu
ではないです
dewanai desu じゃありません
jaarimasen
ではありません
dewaarimasen
Past (e.g. It was important.)   でした
deshita
Past Negative (e.g. It was not important.)   じゃなかったです
janakatta desu
ではなかったです
dewanakatta desu
じゃありませんでした
jaarimasen deshita
ではありませんでした
dewaarimasen deshita
Before nouns (e.g. important things)  
na
**********  
de
*** Compare with adjectives in a polite way
*** じゃ(ja) = では(dewa)
*** ないです(nai desu) = ありません(arimasen)
*** なかったです(nai desu) = ありませんでした(arimasendeshita)
夏子 Natsuko 冬子 Fuyuko

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
Natsuko is beautiful.
夏子は綺麗です
Fuyuko is not beautiful.
冬子は綺麗じゃ(/では)ないです(/ありません)
Natsuko is not ugly.
夏子は不細工じゃ(/では)ないです(/ありません)
Fuyuko is not ugly.
冬子はブスじゃ(/では)ないです(/ありません)
Natsuko likes Fuyuko.
夏子は冬子が好きです
Fuyuko dislikes Natsuko.
冬子は夏子が嫌いです
Natsuko is tight with money.
夏子はケチです
Fuyuko is mean.
冬子は意地悪です

****** で de ********

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji

na-adjective + adjective in a sentence
The outside is clean and the inside is dirty.
外は綺麗で中は汚いです。

na-adjective of positive meaning + adjective of positive meaning
The Japanese in this book is easy and it(/the book) is fun.
この本は日本語が簡単で面白いです。

na-adjective of negative meaning + adjective of negative meaning
Akiko is tight with money and ugly.
秋子はケチで不細工です。

na-adjective of negative meaning + negative clause
Yuri is mean and is hated by everyone.
由利は意地悪で皆から嫌われています。

i-adjective of positive meaning + positive clause
Cherry blossoms are beautiful and everyone loves them.
桜は綺麗で皆大好きです。
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