japanese lessons in exeter
casual form
japanese lessons in exetergive, receive         
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1. Chart
2. あげる ageru
3. さしあげる sashiageru
4. もらう morau, くれる kureru
5. いただく itadaku, くださる kudasaru
6. してあげる shiteageru, してさしあげる shitesashiageru
7. してもらう shitemorau, していただく shiteitadaku
8. してくれる shitekureru, してくださる shitekudasaru
1. Chart
I gave some flowers to my friend.
×友達に花をやったよ。Tomodachi ni hana o yattayo.
友達に花をあげたよ。Tomodachi ni hana o agetayo.
×友達に花を差し上たよ。Tomodachi ni hana o sashiagetayo.

My friend gave me some flowers.
×友達が私に花をあげたよ。Tomodachi ga watashi ni hana o agetayo.
友達が私に花をくれたよ。Tomodachi ga watashi ni hana o kuretayo.

Hanako gave some flowers to Tarou.
花子さんは太郎さんに花をあげたんだよ。Hanako san wa Tarou san ni hana o agetandayo.
×花子さんは太郎さんに花をくれたんだよ。Hanako san wa Tarou san ni hana o kuretandayo.

Hanako gave some flowers to my mother.
花子さんが母に花をくれたよ。Hanako san ga haha ni hana o kuretayo.
×花子さんが母に花をあげたよ。Hanako san ga haha ni hana o agetayo.

My mother gave some flowers only to my sister.
母が姉にだけ花をあげた。Haha ga ane ni dake hana o ageta.
×母が姉にだけ花をくれた。Haha ga ane ni dake hana o kureta.
私は友達に花をもらった。Watashi wa tomodachi ni hana o moratta.
×友達は私に花をもらった。Tomodachi wa watashi ni hana o moratta.

I saw Hanako receiving flowers from Tarou. / I saw Tarou giving flowers to Hanako.
私は花子さんが太郎さんに花をもらっているのを見たよ。Watashi wa Hanako san ga Tarou san ni hana o moratteiru no o mitayo.
×私は太郎さんが花子さんに花をくれているのを見たよ。Watashi wa Tarou san ga Hanako san ni hana o kureteiru no o mitayo.
私は太郎さんが花子さんに花をあげているのを見たよ。Watashi wa Tarou san ga Hanako san ni hana o ageteiru no o mitayo.
2. あげる ageru

Present Negative Past Past Negative
あげる
ageru
あげない
agenai
あげた
ageta
あげなかった
agenakatta


漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji

お母さんの誕生日に何をあげる?
= What are you going to give your mother on her birthday?

昨日彼女に婚約指輪をあげたんだ
= I gave my girlfriend an engagement ring yesterday.

毎日私が犬にエサをあげて(/やって)、母が花に水をあげる(/やる)。
= Everyday, I feed our dog and my mother waters the flowers.

3. さしあげる sashiageru

Present Negative Past Past Negative
さしあげる
sashiageru
さしあげない
sashiagenai
さしあげた
sashiageta
さしあげなかった
sashiagenakatta


漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji

夏子が先生にお茶を差し上げた
= Natuko served (gave) tea for our teacher.

「ご来場の皆さま全員に、プレゼントを差し上げます」だって。
= It says, "We will give presents to everyone who comes"

4. もらう morau くれる kureru

Present Negative Past Past Negative
もらう
morau
もらわない
morawanai
もらった
moratta
もらわなかった
morawanakatta
くれる
kureru
くれない
kurenai
くれた
kureta
くれなかった
kurenakatta

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
これ、誰にもらったの?
= Who did you get this from?

これ、誰がくれたの?
= Who gave you this?
5. いただく itadaku くださる kudasaru
Present Negative Past Past Negative
いただく
itadaku
いただかない
itadakanai
いただいた
itadaita
いただかなかった
itadakanakatta
くださる
kudasaru
くださらない
kudasaranai
くださった
kudasatta
くださらなかった
kudasaranakatta

漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
先生に頂いたケーキが美味しかった
= The cake I got from my teacher was delicious.

先生がくださったケーキが美味しかった
= The cake my teacher gave me was delicious.
Verb te-form + あげる, さしあげる, もらう, くれる, いただく, くださる
          Verb te-form + ageru, sashiageru, morau, kureru, itadaku, kudasaru
The way of thinking is the same as in the chart. Instead of giving an object, you, or someone else, give or receive a favour or kindness by doing something.

6. Verb te-form + あげる ageru, さしあげる sashiageru
To show someone kindness by doing something.
= To do someone a favor. / To kindly do something for someone.
漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
(私があなたに)日本語(を)教えてあげる
= I will teach you Japanese (as a favor).

(私があなたに)昼ご飯(を)作ってあげる
= I will cook lunch for you.

母は毎日父にお弁当を作ってあげている
= My mother makes a packed lunch for my father everyday.
7. Verb te-form + もらう morau, いただく itadaku
To receive someone's kindness by having them do something for you.
= To have someone do something for you.
*** Often because you ask them to do it.
漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
Aさんに英語を教えてもらった
= I had Mr A teach me English. (I am grateful.)

もう少しゆっくり言ってもらえる?
= Could you speak more slowly for me?
** Literally: Can I have you speak more slowly? (I will be grateful if you do.)

会社に来てもらいたいんだけど。。
= I want you to come to my company.
** Literally: I want to have you come to my company.

お父さんに迎えに来てもらったら?
= Why don't you have your father pick you up?
8. Verb te-form + くれる kureru, くださる kudasaru
Someone gives you their kindness by doing something.
= Someone does you a favour. / Someone does something for you.
*** Often they do it without being asked.
漢字 ひらがな/カタカナ Romaji
父に車を買ってもらった
= I had my father buy me a car. (*** It sounds like you had asked your father to buy you a car.)

父が車を買ってくれた
= My father bought me a car. (*** It sounds like it was your father's decision, just to please you. But it could mean that you had asked your father to buy you the car.)
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